Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD)

Time Line of Drug Policy


Sixties years of drug control policy in the Americas

Major milestones in the evolution of international and hemispheric drug control policy are listed chronologically.

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (amended in 1972)
Convention on Psychotropic Substances
June 1971
U.S. President Richard Nixon declares war on drugs in the U.S. as heroin use spikes due to returning Vietnam veterans.
June 1984
Colombia's Justice Minister, Ricardo Lara Bonilla, assassinated in Bogota, Colombia.
November 1984
OAS General Assembly mandates a conference on narcotrafficking
April 1986
Specialized Conference on Traffic in Narcotic Drugs finalizes the Inter-American Program of Action of Rio de Janeiro Against the Illicit Use and Production of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and Traffic Therein
November 1986
OAS General Assembly approves Program of Action of Rio de Janeiro and creates CICAD
January 1987
Executive Secretariat of CICAD starts up operations as a specialized entity of the OAS, with Irving Tragen as the first Executive Secretary
March 1987
The Commission meets for the first time.
United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances
February 1990
 Presidents George Bush (USA), Virgilio Barco (Colombia), Jaime Paz (Bolivia) and Alan Garcia (Peru) issue the Declaration of Cartagena
June 1990
OAS General Assembly adopts the Declaration and 20-point Program of Action of Ixtapa
June 1990
Commission issues Model Regulations to Control Chemical Precursors and Chemical Substances, Machines, and Materials
December 1990
Creation of the Central American Permanent Commission for the Eradication of the Production Traffic, Consumption and Use of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and Related Offenses (CCP)
CICAD creates the Expert Group on the Control of Money Laundering
Commission approves the Inter-American Program of Quito: Comprehensive Education to Prevent Drug Abuse
May 1992
CICAD approves Model Regulations Concerning Laundering Offenses Connected to Illicit Drug Trafficking and Related Offenses, the drafting of which had started in November 1990
April 1994
CICAD Executive Secretary David Beall takes up post
November 1996
Anti-Drug Strategy in the Hemisphere approved by CICAD and the concept of shared responsibility characterizes the approach in Buenos Aires.
June 1997
OAS General Assembly expands CICAD membership to all eligible states (instead of 11 members elected by the Assembly as previously)
CICAD starts working with nursing schools in six Latin American universities to prepare health professionals to deal with drug issues
April 1998
Second Summit of the Americas (Santiago, Chile) mandates the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM)
April 1998
Three university nursing programs in Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela first to participate in CICAD Educational Development Program (Demand Reduction)
June 1998
CICAD takes the lead in drafting the Model Regulations for the Control of the International Movement of Firearms
June 1999
Nursing nursing schools in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru join pilot program of the Educational Development Program.
December 1999
Andean Regional Counterdrug Intelligence School (ERCAIAD) set up in Lima, Peru, with support from CICAD
January 2000
CICAD creates the Inter-American Observatory on Drugs as the statistics, information and research branch
May 2001
First Round Reports of the MEM (1999-2000) issued
At the Quebec Summit of the Americas, CICAD receives a mandate to "develop within the framework of CICAD, a mechanism to measure the human, social and economic costs of drug abuse."
June 2001
Nursing schools in Brazil (2), Chile and Mexico join pilot program of the Educational Development Program
May 2003
Second Round MEM Reports (2001-2002) issued
June 2003
Nursing schools in Argentina, Mexico (2), Honduras and Brazil
October 2003
GLEAM (Generalized Land-Use Evaluation and Management) System used remote imaging and geographic information systems to promote licit crops in Bolivia (Handed over to Bolivian government in 2007) 
September 2004
Hemispheric Guidelines on School-based Drug Abuse Prevention approved, and James Mack becomes the CICAD Executive Secretary
April 2005
ACCESO (Andean Countries Cocoa Export Support Opportunity) gets underway in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, in partnership with the World Cocoa Federation. CICAD focuses on farmer field school methodology to improve growing techniques (ends in March 2008)
May 2005
Third Round MEM Reports (2003-2004) issued
April 2005
CICAD signs agreement with Lions Club International Foundation (LCIF) to expand school-based drug abuse prevention program into six countries
October 2005
Public Health schools set up Educational Development network
June 2007
CICAD sponsors online continuing education in addiction studies with the University of the West Indies
May 2008
Commission approves Fourth Round MEM Reports (2005-2006)
January 2009
Seized Asset Management Project (BIDAL) starts pilot project with Argentina, Chile and Uruguay
May 2009
OAS Secretary General José Miguel Insulza calls on the Commission to update the Anti-Drug Strategy in the Hemisphere.
May 2010
Commission approves the Hemispheric Drug Strategy and starts work on its Plan of Action, 2011-2015.
January 2011
Drug Treatment Courts initiative gets underway in the Caribbean, holding workshop for Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago.
May 2011
Commission approves the Hemispheric Plan of Action, 2011-2015
May 2011
Commission approves Fifth Round MEM Country Reports (2007-2009)
September 2011
Ambassador Paul Simons becomes CICAD Executive Secretary
November 2011
CICAD marks 25th anniversary with meeting in Buenos Aires


updated on 7/26/2012 7:41:08 PM